Diabetes prevents your body from properly absorbing energy from the food you eat because you can’t make insulin or because you can’t use it correctly. There is no cure, but treatments allow you to manage your condition.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high.
There are a few different types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
- Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
- Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.
A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. It’s a different condition in which your kidneys remove too much fluid from your body.
Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments.
Dangers of Diabetes mellitus
Urination and thirst are increased, and people may lose weight even if they are not trying to.
Diabetes damages the nerves and causes problems with sensation.
Diabetes damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and vision loss.
Doctors diagnose diabetes by measuring blood sugar levels.
People with diabetes need to follow a healthy diet that is low in refined carbohydrates (including sugar), saturated fat, and processed foods. They also need to exercise and usually take drugs to lower blood sugar levels.
Here the symptoms of diabetes
The symptoms of diabetes include:
- Increased thirst.
- Increased hunger (especially after eating).
- Dry mouth.
- Frequent urination.
- Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry).
Other symptoms include:
- Weak, tired feeling.
- Blurred vision.
- Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet.
- Slow-healing sores or cuts.
- Dry and itchy skin.
- Frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
Treatment For Diabetes Mellitus
Dietary Management and Physical Activity
Modifying eating habits and increasing physical activity are typically the first steps toward reducing blood sugar levels.
People with type 1 diabetes require multiple insulin injections each day to maintain safe insulin levels. Insulin is often required to treat type 2 diabetes too. Using an insulin pump is an alternative to injections.
The pump is about the size of a pager and is usually worn on your belt. Insulin is delivered through a small tube (catheter) that is placed under the skin (usually in the abdomen).
There are four major types of insulin:
Your doctor will determine your dose and how often you need to take insulin. There is no standard insulin dose as it depends on factors such as your body weight, when you eat, how often you exercise and how much insulin your body produces.
Sometimes blood sugar levels remain high in people with type 2 diabetes even though they eat in a healthy manner and exercise. When this happens, medications taken in pill form may be prescribed. The medications work in several different ways.
These include improve the effectiveness of the body’s natural insulin, reduce blood sugar production, increase insulin production and inhibit blood sugar absorption. Oral diabetes medications are sometimes taken in combination with insulin.